Anne-Marie Slaughter (born September 27, 1958) is an international lawyer, foreign policy analyst, political scientist and public commentator. She is the current President and CEO of New America and a former president of the American Society of International Law. From 2002 to 2009, she was the Dean of Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and the Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Politics and International Affairs. She subsequently served as the Director of Policy Planning for the U.S. State Department from January 2009 until February 2011 under U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. During her academic career, she has taught at the University of Chicago and Harvard University.
Early life, family and honors
Slaughter was born and raised in Charlottesville, Virginia, the daughter of a Belgian mother, Anne Marie Denise (Limbosch), and an American father, Edward Ratliff Slaughter, Jr., a lawyer. Her paternal grandfather was Edward Slaughter, a football player, athletic coach, and professor of physical education. Anne-Marie Slaughter, who once went by Anne-Marie Burley, was a matron of honor at Jeffrey Toobin's wedding. She is married to Princeton politics professor Andrew Moravcsik, with whom she has two children.
Slaughter is a 1976 graduate of St. Anne's-Belfield School in Charlottesville, Virginia. She received her B.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University in 1980, where she graduated magna cum laude and received a certificate in European cultural studies. Mentored by Richard H. Ullman, she won the Daniel M. Sachs Memorial Scholarship, one of Princeton's top honors, which provides for two years of study at Worcester College, Oxford University. After receiving her M.Phil. in International Affairs from Oxford University in 1982, she studied at Harvard Law School and graduated cum laude with a J.D. in 1985. She continued at Harvard after graduation as a researcher for her academic mentor, the international lawyer Abram Chayes. In 1992, she received her D.Phil. in International Relations from Oxford.
Slaughter has received an honorary degree from the University of Miami in 2006, the University of Virginia's Thomas Jefferson Medal in 2007, the University of Warwick in 2013, and Tufts University in 2014; she was the Commencement speaker that year at Tufts. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Scholarship and teaching
Slaughter served on the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School from 1989–1994 and then as J. Sinclair Armstrong Professor of International, Foreign, and Comparative Law on the faculty of Harvard Law School from 1994 to 2002. She then moved to Princeton to serve as dean of the Woodrow Wilson School, the first woman to hold that position. She held that post from 2002 to 2009, when she accepted an appointment at the US State Department. During the academic year 2007–2008, Slaughter was a visiting fellow at the Shanghai Institute for International Affairs. In 2011, she returned to Princeton as a professor.
As a scholar, Slaughter has had a focus on integrating the study of international relations and international law, using international relations theory in international legal theory. In addition, she has written extensively on European Union politics, network theories of world politics, transjudicial communication, liberal theories of international law and international relations, American foreign policy, international law, and various types of policy analysis. She has published four books: International Law and International Relations (2000), A New World Order (2004), The Idea that is America: Keeping Faith with our Values in a Dangerous World (2007), The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the Twenty-first Century (with G. John Ikenberry, Thomas J. Knock, and Tony Smith) (2008), as well as three edited volumes on international relations and international law, and over one hundred extended articles in scholarly and policy journals or books.
She has been active as a teacher of numerous doctoral students in both law and political science, as well as other graduate and undergraduate students. At Princeton University, she is currently jointly appointed in the Politics Department and the Woodrow Wilson School, where she teaches and advises PhD, Masters and undergraduate students.
Slaughter was Director of the International Legal Studies Program at Harvard Law School from 1994–2002, and a Professor at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government from 2001–2002.
During her tenure as dean of the Woodrow Wilson School, she was credited with vigorously building the faculty, research and teaching activities of the school. She expanded the school by 30%, adding scholars from history, sociology, engineering and the natural sciences, and expanded the School's Masters in Public Policy Program to include medical doctors, lawyers, and Ph.D. scientists. She was credited with rebuilding Princeton's international relations faculty, including hiring a bevy of well-respected senior scholars including Robert Keohane, Helen Milner, and G. John Ikenberry. She also retained or hired influential right-of-center scholars including Aaron Friedberg and Thomas Christensen. Slaughter was also responsible for the creation of several research centers in international political economy and national security, the joint Ph.D. program in Social Policy, the Global Fellows program, and the Scholars in the Nation's Service Initiative.
In late 2005, over 100 Princeton students and faculty signed an open letter to Slaughter and Princeton president Shirley Tilghman criticizing the University in general and the Woodrow Wilson School in particular of biasing selection of invited speakers in favor of those supportive of the Bush administration. Slaughter responded to these claims by pointing to the dozens of public lectures by independent academics, journalists, and other analysts that the Wilson School hosts each academic year. Others noted that, with Bush's Republican Party controlling the Presidency and both houses of Congress, many of the most influential people in the federal government, and in the international relations apparatus in particular, were necessarily administration supporters. In 2003 the Woodrow Wilson School hosted an art exhibit titled "Ricanstructions" that opponents of the exhibit claimed was "offensive to Catholics" and desecrated Christian symbols. Slaughter defended the exhibit.
From 2002–2004, Slaughter served as president of the American Society of International Law.
Career at the State Department
On 23 January 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced the appointment of Slaughter as the new Director of Policy Planning under the Obama administration. Slaughter was the first woman to hold this position.
At the State Department, Slaughter was chief architect of the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review whose first iteration was released in December 2010. The QDDR provided a blueprint for elevating development as a pillar of American foreign policy and leading through civilian power. Commenting upon the skepticism that often greets such reports, and reiterating Secretary Clinton's strong desire that the QDDR become an essential part of the State Department policy process, Slaughter said: "I'm pretty sure you're thinking, 'I've heard this before,' [a big plan to change the way a government agency works] But this is different." Slaughter received the Secretary's Distinguished Service Award for exceptional leadership and professional competence, the highest honor conferred by the State Department. She also received a Meritorious Honor Award from the U.S. Agency for International Development for her outstanding contribution to development policy.
In February 2011, at the conclusion of her two-year public service leave, Slaughter returned to Princeton University. She remains a consultant for the State Department and sits on the Secretary of State's Foreign Policy Advisory Board. She has written that she came "home not only because of Princeton's rules (after two years of leave, you lose your tenure), but also because of my desire to be with my family and my conclusion that juggling high-level government work with the needs of two teenage boys was not possible."
A 2015 article in Marie Claire magazine quoted Hillary Clinton as saying that "other women don't break a sweat" and choose to stay working in stressful government jobs. Since the article discussed Anne-Marie Slaughter in the same paragraph, Slaughter mentioned that she was "devastated" by the idea that Clinton had been referring to her specifically. After hearing confirmation from Clinton that the quotation was taken out of context, Slaughter stated that the two were still on good terms.
Other policy, public, and corporate activities
In the 1980s, as a student, Slaughter was part of the team headed by Professor Abram Chayes that helped the Sandinista government of Nicaragua bring suit against the United States in the International Court of Justice for violations of international law, in the case Nicaragua v. United States (1986).
Since leaving the State Department, Slaughter remains a frequent commentator on foreign policy issues by publishing op-eds in major newspapers, magazines and blogs and curating foreign policy news on Twitter. She appears regularly on CNN, BBC, NPR, and PBS and lectures to academic, civic, and corporate audiences. She has written a regular opinion column for Project Syndicate since January 2012. She delivers more than 60 public lectures annually. Foreign Policy magazine named her to their annual list of the Top100 Global Thinkers in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012.
She has served on the boards of numerous non-profit organizations, including the Council of Foreign Relations, the New America Foundation, the National Endowment for Democracy, the National Security Network and the Brookings Doha Center. She is currently on the Advisory Board of the Center for New American Security, the Truman Project, and the bipartisan Development Council of the Center for Strategic and International Studies. In 2006, she chaired the Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on Democracy Promotion. From 2004–2007, she was a co-director of the Princeton Project on National Security.
In the private sector, she is currently on the corporate board of Abt Associates, a mission-driven NGO involved in research, evaluation and implementing programs in the fields of health, social and environmental policy, and international development. She was previously on the board of the McDonald's Corporation and that of the Citigroup Economic and Political Strategies Advisory Group.
In 2013, Slaughter was named president of the New America Foundation, a think-tank based in Washington, D.C.
On the 2003 invasion of Iraq
In 2003, Slaughter stated that the impending Iraq invasion might be viewed as "legitimate," apart from the question of whether it was illegal, if intervening countries: (a) found weapons of mass destruction, (b) were greeted as liberators, and (c) went back to the UN immediately. Slaughter subsequently concluded publicly that, according to these criteria, the invasion had been illegitimate.
On the Responsibility to Protect
In July 2005, Slaughter wrote in the American Journal of International Law about the responsibility to protect (R2P) that:
In her 2006 Levine lecture at Fordham University, Slaughter called the R2P "the most important shift in our conception of sovereignty since the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648," and founded it in the Four Freedoms speech by President Roosevelt. She referred to a speech by Kofi Annan, in which he saw that the United Nations had come to a "fork in the road" and in her words "that it was time to decide how to adapt the institution to not the world of 1945 but the world of 2005".
On Libyan intervention
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, were adopted on 26 February and 17 March 2011, respectively. Resolution 1970 was the first case where the Security Council authorized a military intervention citing the R2P; it passed unanimously. One week after the adoption with many absentions of the latter Resolution, Slaughter wrote a strong endorsement of Western military intervention in Libya.
In this op-ed, Slaughter challenged the skeptics who questioned the NATO use of force in Libya, describing a lack of NATO as an invitation for other regional regimes to increase their repression to remain in power. She challenged the idea that value-based and interest-based arguments on intervention could be distinguished and noted the role of President Barack Obama in helping to form an international coalition, which increased the pressure on Muammar Gadhafi. She is supportive of the Libyan Transitional National Council draft constitutional charter and is relieved that comparisons with Iraq are being made, because it might prevent similar mistakes in Libya.
On 25 August 2011, she was roundly criticized by Matt Welch, who sorted through many of Slaughter's prior op-eds and concluded that she was a "situational constitutionalist".
Clifford May on 15 October 2014 wrote a piece in which he drew a straight line between Annan and Slaughter's R2P "norm", and the failure in Libya. May noted that President Obama had cited the R2P norm as his primary justification for using military force with Libyan dictator Moammar Gadhafi, who had threatened to attack the opposition stronghold of Benghazi.
In a 11 November 2014 piece entitled What Happened to the Humanitarians Who Wanted to Save Libyans With Bombs and Drones?, Glenn Greenwald denounced her and her policies:
On 26 February 2015, Forbes magazine published a piece which called for Washington policymakers to be held accountable for another war gone bad. Slaughter was singled out for criticism, for her statement that “it clearly can be in the U.S. and the West’s strategic interest to help social revolutions fighting for the values we espouse and proclaim.” The writer, Doug Bandow, concluded that:
On intervention in Syria
In a February 2012 op-ed for the New York Times, Slaughter wrote an affective piece that proposed the overthrow of Bashar el-Assad by means of civil disobedience:
She proposed that actors such as Turkey, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, "arm the opposition soldiers with anti-tank, countersniper and portable antiaircraft weapons" in order to help the Friends of Syria group intervene. Journalist Michael Hirsh was quick to support her in the National Journal, writing that "even if the U.N. Security Council remains paralyzed, the newly empowered Arab League can provide a cover of legitimacy."
On 8 June 2012, Slaughter returned to the subject of intervention in Syria, with a rebuttal of a Henry Kissinger piece, in which he argued that an intervention would imperil the foundation of world order. Citing two situation reports and claiming that NATO had violated UNSC 1970 in Libya, Slaughter imagined an intervention process without widespread destruction:
Slaughter sought to provide arms to the rebels, calling for bold action in creating a western backed coalition that would provide heavy weapons to rebels that controlled safe zones which admitted foreign journalists to monitor the rebels' actions. She imagined that "this type of action would force the Russian and Chinese governments to come clean about the real motives for their positions," and proceeded to charge Vladimir Putin with "crimes against humanity, indeed near-genocide... in Chechnya at the turn of the century". Slaughter admitted that the principle of sovereignty was "enshrined in the United Nations Charter," but pointed to the fact that in 2005, the doctrine of R2P had been adopted by the UN.
On work-family balance
Slaughter's article titled "Why Women Still Can't Have it All" appeared in the July/August 2012 issue of The Atlantic. In the first four days after publication, the piece attracted 725,000 unique readers, making it the most popular article ever published in that magazine. In the same period, it received over 119,000 Facebook "Recommends," making it by far the most "liked" piece ever to appear in any version of the magazine. Within several days, it had been discussed in detail on the front page of The New York Times and in many other media outlets, attracting attention from around the world. Although Slaughter originally tried to call the article "Why Women Can't Have it All Yet," she has since stated that it was a mistake to use the phrase "Have it All" in general. In 2015, Slaughter clarified that she hoped to stimulate a discussion about a wide range of working mothers, not only those in prestigious or lucrative careers.
The article in The Atlantic became the basis of the 2015 book Unfinished Business: Women Men Work Family. The book argues that a number of challenges remain for the women's movement in the US. One step toward gender equity that it advocates is empowering men to re-envision their lives and embrace the roles of engaged fathers, sons and caregivers.
- Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2017). The Chessboard and the Web: Strategies of Connection in a Networked World. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300215649.
- Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2015). Unfinished Business: Women Men Work Family. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780345812896.
- Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2007). The Idea That Is America: Keeping Faith with Our Values in a Dangerous World. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465078080.
- Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2004). A New World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691123974.
- Laurence R Helfer and Anne-Marie Slaughter, Towards a Theory of Effective Supranational Adjudication (1997) 107(2) Yale Law Journal 273.
- Anne Marie-Slaughter, “Security, Solidarity, and Sovereignty: The Grand Themes of UN Reform” 99 A.J.I.L. 619, 628 (July 2005).
- Art, Robert J, Peter Feaver, Richard Fontaine, Kristin M. Lord & Anne-Marie Slaughter (2012), America’s Path: Grand Strategy for the Next Administration, Center for a New American Security
- G. John Ikenberry, Thomas J. Knock, Anne-Marie Slaughter & Tony Smith, The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the Twenty-first Century, Princeton University Press, 2008.
- Slaughter, A.-M., A. Moravcsik, W.A. Burke-White. 2005. Liberal Theory of International Law. New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
- Slaughter, A.-M. 2004. A New World Order: Government Networks and the Disaggregated State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Goldstein, J., M. Kahler, R.O. Keohane, and A.-M. Slaughter, eds. 2000. "Legalization and world politics: A special issue of international organization" International Organization, 54.
- Ratner, S.R., and A.-M. Slaughter, eds. 1999. "Symposium on method in international law: A special issue of the American Journal of International Law." American Journal of International Law, 93.
- Slaughter, A.-M., A. Stone Sweet, and J.H.H. Weiler, eds. 1997. The European Courts and National Courts: Doctrine and Jurisprudence. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
- Slaughter, A.-M. 2000. "International Law and International Relations Theory: Millennial Lectures." Hague Academy of International Law, Summer.
- Slaughter, A.-M., and K. Raustiala. 2001. "Considering Compliance." In Handbook of International Relations, edited by Walter Carlnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth Simmons. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.