Krzysztof Kieślowski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈkʂɨʂtɔf kʲɛɕˈlɔfskʲi]; 27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was an influential Polish art-house film director and screenwriter known internationally for Dekalog (1989), The Double Life of Veronique (1991), and the Three Colors trilogy (1993–1994). Kieślowski received numerous awards during his career, including the Cannes Film Festival Jury Prize (1988), FIPRESCI Prize (1988, 1991), and Prize of the Ecumenical Jury (1991); the Venice Film Festival FIPRESCI Prize (1989), Golden Lion (1993), and OCIC Award (1993); and the Berlin International Film Festival Silver Bear (1994). In 1995 he received Academy Award nominations for Best Director and Best Writing. In 2002 Kieślowski was listed at number two on the British Film Institute's Sight & Sound Top Ten Directors list of modern times.
Kieślowski was born in Warsaw, the son of Barbara (née Szonert) and Roman Kieślowski. He grew up in several small towns, moving wherever his engineer father, a tuberculosis patient, could find treatment. He was raised Roman Catholic and retained what he called a "personal and private" relationship with God. At sixteen, he attended a firefighters' training school, but dropped out after three months. Without any career goals, he then entered the College for Theatre Technicians in Warsaw in 1957 because it was run by a relative. He wanted to become a theatre director, but lacked the required bachelor's degree for the theatre department, so he chose to study film as an intermediate step.
Leaving college and working as a theatrical tailor, Kieślowski applied to the Łódź Film School, the famed Polish film school which also has Roman Polanski and Andrzej Wajda among its alumni. He was rejected twice. To avoid compulsory military service during this time, he briefly became an art student, and also went on a drastic diet in an attempt to make himself medically unfit for service. After several months of successfully avoiding the draft, he was accepted to the Łódź Film School on his third attempt.
He attended from 1964 to 1968, during a period in which the government allowed a relatively high degree of artistic freedom at the school. Kieślowski quickly lost his interest in theatre and decided to make documentary films. Kieślowski also married his lifelong love, Maria (Marysia) Cautillo, during his final year in school (m. 21 January 1967 to his death), and they had a daughter, Marta (b. 8 January 1972).
Kieślowski retired from film-making with a public announcement after the premiere of his last film Red at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival.
Kieślowski's early documentaries focused on the everyday lives of city dwellers, workers, and soldiers. Though he was not an overtly political filmmaker, he soon found that attempting to depict Polish life accurately brought him into conflict with the authorities. His television film Workers '71, which showed workers discussing the reasons for the mass strikes of 1970, was only shown in a drastically censored form. After Workers '71, he turned his eye on the authorities themselves in Curriculum Vitae, a film that combined documentary footage of Politburo meetings with a fictional story about a man under scrutiny by the officials. Though Kieślowski believed the film's message was anti-authoritarian, he was criticized by his colleagues for cooperating with the government in its production.
Kieślowski later said that he abandoned documentary filmmaking due to two experiences: the censorship of Workers '71, which caused him to doubt whether truth could be told literally under an authoritarian regime, and an incident during the filming of Station (1981) in which some of his footage was nearly used as evidence in a criminal case. He decided that fiction not only allowed more artistic freedom, but could portray everyday life more truthfully.
Polish feature films
His first non-documentary feature, Personnel (1975), was made for television and won him first prize at the Mannheim Film Festival. Both Personnel and his next feature, The Scar (Blizna), were works of social realism with large casts: Personnel was about technicians working on a stage production, based on his early college experience, and The Scar showed the upheaval of a small town by a poorly-planned industrial project. These films were shot in a documentary style with many nonprofessional actors; like his earlier films, they portrayed everyday life under the weight of an oppressive system, but without overt commentary. Camera Buff (Amator, 1979) (which won the grand prize at the 11th Moscow International Film Festival) and Blind Chance (Przypadek, 1981) continued along similar lines, but focused more on the ethical choices faced by a single character rather than a community. During this period, Kieślowski was considered part of a loose movement with other Polish directors of the time, including Janusz Kijowski, Andrzej Wajda, and Agnieszka Holland, called the Cinema of Moral Anxiety. His links with these directors (Holland in particular) caused some raised eyebrows within the Polish government, and each of his early films was subjected to censorship and enforced re-shooting/re-editing, if not banned outright (Blind Chance was not released domestically until 1987, almost six years after it was completed).
No End (Bez końca, 1984) was perhaps his most clearly political film, depicting political trials in Poland during martial law, from the unusual point of view of a lawyer's ghost and his widow. It was harshly criticized by both the government and dissidents. Starting with No End, Kieślowski's career was closely associated with two regular collaborators, the screenwriter Krzysztof Piesiewicz and the composer Zbigniew Preisner. Piesiewicz was a trial lawyer whom Kieślowski met while researching political trials under martial law for a planned documentary on the subject; Piesiewicz co-wrote the screenplays for all of Kieślowski's subsequent films. Preisner provided the musical score for No End and most of the subsequent films; the score often plays a prominent part in Kieślowski's films and many of Preisner's pieces are referred to within the films themselves. In these cases, they are usually discussed by the films' characters as being the work of the (fictional) Dutch composer Van den Budenmayer. Dekalog (1988), a series of ten short films set in a Warsaw tower block, each nominally based on one of the Ten Commandments, was created for Polish television with funding from West Germany; it is now one of the most critically acclaimed film cycles of all time. Co-written by Kieślowski and Piesiewicz, the ten one-hour-long episodes had originally been intended for ten different directors, but Kieślowski found himself unable to relinquish control over the project; in the end, each episode featured a different director of photography. Episodes five and six were released internationally in a longer form as A Short Film About Killing and A Short Film About Love respectively. Kieślowski had also planned to shoot a full-length version of Episode 9 under the title A Short Film About Jealousy, but exhaustion eventually prevented him from making what would have been his thirteenth film in less than a year.
Kieślowski's last four films, his most commercially successful, were foreign co-productions, made mainly with money from France and in particular from Romanian-born producer Marin Karmitz. These focused on moral and metaphysical issues along lines similar to Dekalog and Blind Chance but on a more abstract level, with smaller casts, more internal stories, and less interest in communities. Poland appeared in these films mostly through the eyes of European outsiders.
The first of these was The Double Life of Veronique (La double vie de Veronique, 1990), which starred Irène Jacob. The commercial success of this film gave Kieślowski the funding for his ambitious final films, the trilogy Three Colors (Blue, White, Red), which explores the virtues symbolized by the French flag. The three films garnered prestigious international awards, including the Golden Lion for Best Film at the Venice Film Festival and the Silver Bear for Best Director at the Berlin Film Festival, in addition to three Academy Award nominations.
Kieślowski often used the same actors in key roles in his films, including:
- Artur Barciś in No End, Dekalog, A Short Film About Love, and A Short Film About Killing
- Aleksander Bardini in No End, Dekalog, The Double Life of Veronique, and Three Colors: White
- Tadeusz Bradecki in Camera Buff and No End
- Irène Jacob in The Double Life of Veronique and Three Colors: Red
- Boguslaw Linda in Blind Chance and Dekalog
- Maria Pakulnis in No End and Dekalog
- Jerzy Stuhr in The Scar, Camera Buff, Blind Chance, Dekalog, and Three Colors: White
- Grażyna Szapołowska in 'No End, Dekalog, and A Short Film About Love
- Zbigniew Zamachowski in Dekalog, and Three Colors: White
- Janusz Gajos in Dekalog, and Three Colors: White
- "11th Moscow International Film Festival (1979)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
- Bernard, Renata; Woodward, Steven, eds. (2016). Krzysztof Kieslowski: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1626745749.
- "Berlinale: 1994 Prize Winners". Berlinale. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
Just under two years after announcing his retirement, Krzysztof Kieślowski died on 13 March 1996 at age 54 during open-heart surgery following a heart attack, and was interred in Powązki Cemetery in Warsaw. His grave is located within the prestigious plot 23 and has a sculpture of the thumb and forefingers of two hands forming an oblong space—the classic view as if through a movie camera. The small sculpture is in black marble on a pedestal slightly over a metre tall. The slab with Kieślowski's name and dates lies below. He was survived by his wife Maria and daughter Marta.
Kieślowski remains one of Europe's most influential directors, his works included in the study of film classes at universities throughout the world. The 1993 book Kieślowski on Kieślowski describes his life and work in his own words, based on interviews by Danusia Stok. He is also the subject of a biographical film, Krzysztof Kieślowski: I'm So-So (1995), directed by Krzysztof Wierzbicki.
After Kieślowski's death, Harvey Weinstein (then head of Miramax Films, which distributed the last four Kieślowski films in the US) wrote a eulogy for him in Premiere magazine.
Though he had claimed to be retiring after Three Colors, at the time of his death Kieślowski was working on a new trilogy co-written with Piesiewicz, consisting of Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory and inspired by Dante's The Divine Comedy. As was originally intended for Dekalog, the scripts were ostensibly intended to be given to other directors for filming, but Kieślowski's untimely death means it is unknown whether he might have broken his self-imposed retirement to direct the trilogy himself. The only completed screenplay, Heaven, was filmed by Tom Tykwer and premiered in 2002 at the Berlin International Film Festival. The other two scripts existed only as thirty-page treatments at the time of Kieślowski's death; Piesiewicz has since completed these screenplays, with Hell — directed by Bosnian director Danis Tanović and starring Emmanuelle Béart — released in 2005. Purgatory, about a photographer killed in the Bosnian war, remains unproduced. The 2007 film Nadzieja (Hope), directed by Ibo Kurdo and Stanislaw Mucha, also scripted by Piesiewicz, has been incorrectly identified as the third part of the trilogy, but is in fact, an unrelated project. Jerzy Stuhr, who starred in several Kieślowski films and co-wrote Camera Buff, filmed his own adaptation of an unfilmed Kieślowski script as Big Animal (Duże zwierzę) in 2000.
In an interview given at Oxford University, Kieślowski said the following:
It comes from a deep-rooted conviction that if there is anything worthwhile doing for the sake of culture, then it is touching on subject matters and situations which link people, and not those that divide people. There are too many things in the world which divide people, such as religion, politics, history, and nationalism. If culture is capable of anything, then it is finding that which unites us all. And there are so many things which unite people. It doesn't matter who you are or who I am, if your tooth aches or mine, it's still the same pain. Feelings are what link people together, because the word 'love' has the same meaning for everybody. Or 'fear', or 'suffering'. We all fear the same way and the same things. And we all love in the same way. That's why I tell about these things, because in all other things I immediately find division.
In the foreword to Dekalog: The Ten Commandments, American filmmaker Stanley Kubrick wrote:
I am always reluctant to single out some particular feature of the work of a major filmmaker because it tends inevitably to simplify and reduce the work. But in this book of screenplays by Krzysztof Kieślowski and his co-author, Krzysztof Piesiewicz, it should not be out of place to observe that they have the very rare ability to dramatize their ideas rather than just talking about them. By making their points through the dramatic action of the story they gain the added power of allowing the audience to discover what's really going on rather than being told. They do this with such dazzling skill, you never see the ideas coming and don't realize until much later how profoundly they have reached your heart.
Stanley Kubrick January 1991
Sight & Sound magazine conducts a poll every ten years of the world's finest film directors to find out the Ten Greatest Films of All Time. This poll has been conducted since 1952, and has become the most recognised poll of its kind in the world. In 2012 Cyrus Frisch voted for "A Short Film About Killing". Frisch commented: "In Poland, this film was instrumental in the abolition of the death penalty."
Since 2011, Polish Contemporary Art Foundation "In Situ" organizes a film festival in Sokołowsko, where Kieślowski spent a part of his youth. The annual "Sokołowsko Film Festival: Hommage à Kieślowski" commemorates the director's work. It is an interdisciplinary event, where screenings of his films are accompanied with creative workshops, panel discussions, performances, exhibitions and concerts.
Documentaries and short subjects
- The Face (Twarz 1966), as actor
- The Office (Urząd 1966)
- Tramway (Tramwaj 1966)
- Concert of Requests (Koncert życzeń 1967)
- The Photograph (Zdjęcie 1968)
- From the City of Łódź (Z miasta Łodzi 1968)
- I Was a Soldier (Byłem żołnierzem 1970)
- Factory (Fabryka 1970)
- Workers '71: Nothing About Us Without Us (Robotnicy '71: Nic o nas bez nas 1971)
- Before the Rally (Przed rajdem 1971)
- Between Wrocław and Zielona Góra (Między Wrocławiem a Zieloną Górą 1972)
- The Principles of Safety and Hygiene in a Copper Mine (Podstawy BHP w kopalni miedzi 1972)
- Gospodarze (1972)
- Refrain (Refren 1972)
- The Bricklayer (Murarz 1973)
- First Love (Pierwsza miłość 1974)
- X-Ray (Przeswietlenie 1974)
- Pedestrian Subway (Przejście podziemne 1974)
- Curriculum Vitae (Życiorys 1975)
- Hospital (Szpital 1976)
- Slate (Klaps 1976)
- From a Night Porter's Point of View (Z punktu widzenia nocnego portiera 1977)
- I Don't Know (Nie wiem 1977)
- Seven Women of Different Ages (Siedem kobiet w roznym wieku 1978)
- Railway Station (Dworzec 1980)
- Talking Heads (Gadające glowy 1980)
- Seven Days a Week (Siedem dni tygodniu 1988)
Feature films and TV drama
- Personnel (Personel TV drama 1975)
- The Scar (Blizna 1976)
- The Calm (Spokój 1976)
- Camera Buff (Amator 1979)
- Short Working Day (Krótki dzień pracy 1981)
- No End (Bez końca 1985)
- Blind Chance (Przypadek 1987)
- Dekalog (1988)
- A Short Film About Killing (Krótki film o zabijaniu 1988)
- A Short Film About Love (Krótki film o miłości 1988)
- The Double Life of Veronique (La Double vie de Veronique/Podwójne życie Weroniki 1991)
- Three Colors: Blue (Trois couleurs: Bleu/Trzy kolory: Niebieski 1993)
- Three Colors: White (Trois couleurs: Blanc/Trzy kolory: Biały 1994)
- Three Colors: Red (Trois couleurs: Rouge/Trzy kolory: Czerwony 1994)
Awards and nominations
Krzysztof Kieślowski earned numerous awards and nominations throughout his career, dating back to the Kraków Film Festival Golden Hobby-Horse in 1974. The following is a list of awards and nominations earned for his later work.
- A Short Film About Killing
- Bodil Award for Best European Film (1990) Won
- Cannes Film Festival FIPRESCI Prize (1988) Won
- Cannes Film Festival Jury Prize Won
- Cannes Film Festival Nomination for the Palme d'Or (1988)
- French Syndicate of Cinema Critics Award for Best Foreign Film (1990) Won
- Bodil Award for Best European Film (1991) Won
- Venice Film Festival Children and Cinema Award (1989) Won
- Venice Film Festival FIPRESCI Prize (1989) Won
- The Double Life of Veronique
- Argentine Film Critics Association Silver Condor Nomination for Best Foreign Film (1992)
- Cannes Film Festival FIPRESCI Prize (1991) Won
- Cannes Film Festival Prize of the Ecumenical Jury (1991) Won
- Cannes Film Festival Nomination for the Palme d'Or (1991)
- French Syndicate of Cinema Critics Award for Best Foreign Film (1992) Won
- Warsaw International Film Festival Audience Award (1991) Won
- Three Colors: Blue
- César Award Nomination for Best Director (1994)
- César Award Nomination for Best Film (1994)
- César Award Nomination for Best Writing, Original or Adaptation (1994)
- Venice Film Festival Golden Ciak Award (1993) Won
- Venice Film Festival Golden Lion Award (1993) Won
- Venice Film Festival Little Golden Lion Award, Won
- Venice Film Festival OCIC Award (1993) Won
- Three Colors: White
- Berlin International Film Festival Silver Bear for Best Director (1994) Won
- Berlin International Film Festival Golden Bear Nomination for Best Director (1994)
- Three Colors: Red
- Academy Award Nomination for Best Director (1995)
- Academy Award Nomination for Best Writing (1995)
- BAFTA Film Award Nomination for Best Film not in the English Language (1995)
- BAFTA Film Award Nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay (1995)
- BAFTA Film Award Nomination for the David Lean Award for Direction (1995)
- Bodil Award for Best Non-American Film (1995) Won
- Cannes Film Festival Nomination for the Palme d'Or (1994)
- César Award Nomination for Best Director (1995)
- César Award Nomination for Best Film (1995)
- César Award Nomination for Best Writing, Original or Adaptation (1995)
- French Syndicate of Cinema Critics Award for Best Film (1995) Won
- Vancouver International Film Festival Most Popular Film (1994) Won
- "Awards for Krzysztof Kieślowski". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 19 May 2012.