Louis DuBois was a Huguenot colonist in New Netherland who, with two of his sons and nine other refugees, founded the town of New Paltz, New York. These Protestant refugees fled Catholic persecution in France, emigrating to the Die Pfalz, the Rhenish Palatinate (in present day Germany), before going to New Netherland where they settled in Wiltwyck (present day Kingston, NY) and Nieuw Dorp, settlements midway between New Amsterdam (present day New York City) and Beverwyck (today known as Albany, New York) before ultimately founding New Paltz.
Louis was the son of Chrétien du Bois and Françoise le Poivre of Wicres, and later Herlies, in Walloon Flanders, then part of Spanish Netherlands.
The 3rd part of Horton, "The Memory of the Just is Blessed", begins with an extract from a document in the Archives du Nord, and commentary:
Louis du Bois fils de feu Crestien de stil couturier dem(eurant) à Herlÿ ...at par ceste vendu cede et t(ran)sporte audict Franchois du Bois ... touttes tel part droict et action quil poeut ... avoir des suscessions et hoiries à luy venu ... par les trepas dudict Crestien son père et de Franchoise le Poivre sa mere ... (2E3/3572-110 (August 12, 1643)). On this day in 1643, our future Patentee sold his interest in his parents' estate to his uncle "Franchois du Bois fils de feu Anthoine dem(eurant) à Wicre" (for 3,600 livres parisis). Ibid. Although he was already a 'dressmaker' by profession ("de still couturier"), he would have been on that date, according to our tradition, aged merely 16 years. The reader is justifiably struck by the singularity of this professional status and contractual capacity at such a tender age. There is no suggestion of record, for example, that he was operating under any tutelage or guardianship in this sale of his birthright. Nor does it indicate that Louis was merely a couturier's "apprentice" or the like. When presented with the new evidence from Lille, readers will likely agree that American traditions regarding the birthdates of the three known Huguenot children of Chrétien du Bois — Louis, Françoise, and Jacques — should be revisited, and, perhaps, accordingly revised.
The article seemingly demonstrates that the christening recorded 21 Oct 1626 at Wicres refers to Toussaint du Bois, not his brother Louis. Louis du Bois and his (apparent twin) brother Antoine were christened at Wicres 17 Jun 1622. Louis and Antoine appear to have been named after their paternal grandfather and great-grandfather.
- The article demonstrates the incorrect translation of Flemish Old French. Flemish is one of the three national languages of Belgium, together with French and German, and is the only official language of the Flemish Region. The various Dutch dialects spoken in Belgium contain a number of lexical and grammatical features which distinguish them from standard Dutch. Crestien translates to Guislain (or Ghislain), and formal records were usually kept in Latin, "Old French" or Corsican as the Flanders region was then governed as the Spanish Netherlands. The incorrect translation of "de still Courtuier" above can be translated as still being of titled nobility, and a member of the wool supply trade at that time as Guislains lands were sold. His titleage was sold at a later date. In those days, wool was gold.
Refugee from Religious Persecution
Louis fled persecution in France to Mannheim, Germany before 1650. Louis married Catherine Blanchan, in Mannheim, Germany on October 10, 1655. (Publication of Collections of the Ulster Historical Society –Ulster County Historical Society (Kingston, N.Y.), Ulster County Historical Society, Kingston, N.Y., ADDRESS of the Hon. A. BRUYN HASBROUCK, LL.D., delivered before the Society October 17th, 1859. Page XXXIV)
Louis and Catherine had at least eleven children:
- Abraham DuBois (1657-1731), who was also a New Paltz Patentee. He married Margaret Deyo, daughter of Christian Deyo, another New Paltz Patentee.
- Isaac DuBois (1659-1690), who was also a New Paltz Patentee. He married Maria Hasbrouck, daughter of Jean Hasbrouck II, another New Paltz Patentee, and his wife Anne Deyo, daughter of Christian Deyo.
- Jacob DuBois (1661-1745), married Gerritje Nieuwkirk
- Sarah DuBois (1664-1726), married Joost Jansen Van Meteren
- David DuBois (1667-1715), married Cornelia Vernooy
- Solomon DuBois (1669-1759), married Tryntje Gerritsen Foochen
- Rebecca DuBois (1671-by 1713)
- Rachel DuBois (1675-by 1713)
- Louis DuBois Jr. (1677-1749), married Rachel Hasbrouck. She was the daughter of Abraham Hasbrouck, another New Paltz Patentee and his wife, Maria Deyo, daughter of Christian Deyo.
- Mattheus DuBois (1679-1748), married Sara Van Keuren.
- Magdalena DuBois (1680-by 1713)
New Netherland Immigration
The DuBoises eventually moved to Kingston, New York within New Netherland around 1660, then to Hurley, New York. In 1663 the Esopus Indians captured DuBois' wife and three children who were eventually rescued three months later. According to legend but unmentioned in the detailed journal of the rescue expedition's commander, his wife, Catherine DuBois, was singing the Psalm 137 about the Babylonian captivity when they were rescued. Louis DuBois was also physically attacked by the Indians, but fought back and survived.
New Paltz Patentee
DuBois and the others bought a 40,000 acre tract of land from the Esopus Indians in 1677. The tract, known in 17th-century colonial New York as a "patent," stretched from the Hudson River to the Shawangunk Mountains. DuBois was one of eleven men to begin settling on a rise over the Wallkill River, in the center of the patent, in 1678. Louis DuBois served as one of the original elders in New Paltz's French Reformed Church, which is still in existence today.
In the early years, DuBois and his fellow patentees governed the land communally. In 1728, the surviving patentees and their descendants created a more formal form a government called "The Twelve Men" (later known as the Duzine). This body consisted of one elected representative for each patentee families. Membership was restricted to their descendants through either male or female lines. To this date, some of the DuBois land is still owned by the family descendants. In 1785, the New York State Legislature confirmed the actions of this body. Although a standard form of town government was established in the late 18th century, the Duzine existed in at least ceremonial form into the 19th century. In the later years of the Duzine, the members were consumed with lawsuits defending the boundaries of the New Paltz patent. At one time, the Duzine hired Aaron Burr to represent them in such a lawsuit.
Louis himself eventually returned to Wiltwyck, by then known as Kingston, where he died prior to his will entering probate on June 23, 1696. His widow remarried, and in her will freed two of her slaves.
The original settlement of Louis DuBois and his fellow patentees survives today as Historic Huguenot Street, a National Historic Landmark District. The site includes the DuBois Fort, a colonial stone house built by one of Louis' sons.
W.E.B. Du Bois is said to be grandson of a loyalist descendant of Louis DuBois' brother who left for the West Indies. Most DuBois descendants supported the revolution, though, and now, descendants of the family's "French father" can be found in every state of the union.
Some of the notable descendants of Louis DuBois include:
- George S. Patton, United States Army general
- Mary Cassatt, American painter and printmaker
- Marlon Brando, American screen and stage actor
- Joan Crawford, American actress
- Sam Walton, founder of Walmart and Sam's Club
- Morton Deyo, United States Naval officer
- George H. Sharpe, United States Army general and New York State Assemblyman and Speaker
- Henry Granville Sharpe, United States Army general
- Abraham J. Hasbrouck, United States Congressman from New York
- Louis Hasbrouck, New York State Assemblyman and Senator
- Josiah Hasbrouck, United States Congressman from New York
- Sol Hasbrouck, Mayor of Boise, Idaho
- John Needham, Former VP, Canon Canada
- Jon Huntsman Jr., Governor of Utah, United States diplomat and businessman
- Horton D. Haight, Mormon pioneer
- David B. Haight, LDS Church Apostle and Mayor of Palo Alto, California
- Jacob LeFever, United States Congressman from New York
- Frank J. LeFevre, United States Congressman from New York
- Jay Le Fevre, United States Congressman from New York
- Abraham A. Deyo, New York State Senator
- Vernon Dubois Penner Jr., United States diplomat
- Brodie Van Wagenen, former sports agent and current New York Mets general manager
- Jeff Van Wagenen, pro golfer and businessman
- Gertrude Van Wagenen, biologist
- William Gilmer, United States Navy Captain and Naval Governor of Guam
- Winfield Scott Schley, United States Navy Admiral
- John Monroe Van Vleck, American mathematician and astronomer
- Edward Burr Van Vleck, American mathematician
- John Hasbrouck Van Vleck, American physicist, mathematician and 1977 Nobel Prize in Physics winner
- Theodoric R. Westbrook, United States Congressman from New York
- Roeliff Brinkerhoff, American lawyer and editor
- William Lounsbery, United States Congressman from New York and second mayor of Kingston, New York
- Katherine Lawrence Sharpe, wife of Ira Davenport, United States Congressman from New York
- Elizabeth Van Wyck Westbrook, wife of Marius Schoonmaker, United States Congressman from New York
- Mary Louise Schoonmaker, wife of Alton B. Parker, American judge and Democratic Candidate for United States President in 1904
- Mary Elizabeth Hasbrouck, wife of Harcourt J. Pratt, United States Congressman from New York
- Shirley Deyo, wife of Douglas Dayton, businessperson with the Target Corporation